Tibetan Buddhism, which is also called by some as the northern Buddhism, consists the three main Buddhist-geographical system along with Chinese Buddhism and Theravada Buddhism. Deriving from the latest stages of Indian Buddhism and preserves “the Tantric status quo of eighth-century India” in some theories.
Tibetan Buddhism is known for its profound and rich amount of scripts and literature in Tibetan language. Kangyur and Tengyur are two series of collections, as Kangyur being the teaching of Buddha, and Tengyur being the interpretations from countless scholars and masters. Tibetan scripts are the only remaining literature that has completely documented the formation and development of Buddhist ideologies, philosophies, and researches through the time span of over two thousand years since the birth of Gautama Buddha.
The formation of Tibetan Buddhism is widely accepted as the fusion of Chinese Buddhism, Indian Buddhism, and the Tibetan-native religion of Bon. The origin of Tibetan Buddhism was dated back to the 7th century, when Songtsen Gampo, the founder of the Tibetan Empire and the organizer of Tibetan alphabet, were able to marry Princess Bhrikuti Devi from Nepal and Prince Wencheng from Tang China. The two queens opened both the western and eastern paths of Buddhism to Tibet.
Yet Tibetan Buddhism was brought to the edge of distinction when Langdarma, the second son of Songtsen Gampo and the second emperor of the Tibetan Empire decide to annihilate Buddhism within the land the Tibet, and it was not until hundreds of years later when Je Tsongkhapa founded the Gelug school, and China began to rule Tibet which finally settled down the chaos that Buddhism regained its light on the roof of the world. A stable system of two reincarnating Lamas, Dalai and Panchen, was also formed. Ever since, Tibetan Buddhism flourished under the caesaropapist system.
Tibetan Buddhism is most influential in the Tibetan area, Nepal, Bhutan, and Himachal Pradesh, Ladakh and Dharamsala of India. Since the 13th century, Tibetan Buddhism has also gained popularity in Mongolia, and recently, it is beginning to spread to the whole world.